READING AND WRITING LISTENING AND SPEAKING Skills for Success . 3. H ow does Y orkshire p u d d in g taste? Circle th e sentence th a t describes th e taste. Every student book includes a Q Online Practice access code card. Q Skills for Success: Reading and Writing 3: Student Book with Online Practice by Colin S Ward, , available at Book Depository with free. Q Skills for Success encourages students to think critically and succeed academically. Q Second Edition Co-Author, Reading and Writing Level 3. As teachers rehears[ing] academic writing (Cheng, , p) and composing thoughtful.
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isbn: Reading Writing 3 Student Book . MI; Javier D om inguez, Central High School, SC; Jo Ellen Downey-Greer,. Lansing .. For alternative unit assignments, see the Q: Skills for Success Teacher's Handbook. Q: Skills for Success 4 is the fifth in a series of six integrated course books for Each of the 10 units in the Q: Skills for Success 4 Reading and Writing student book contains a set of two ing (“Can climate change make us sicker? Page 3 . Q: Skills for Success 1 Reading and Writing. Sarah Lynn (Student book) and Lawrence Lawson (Teacher's. Handbook). New York: Oxford University Press,
Ask students to retell what they have just seen. What do you think? Have students state their opinions. Put them into pairs or small groups. Ask them to discuss what they saw and state if they agree or disagree with the points of view shown in the video.
Role-play a scene Put students into pairs or small groups. Have them recreate a scene from the video clip.
Students can act out the scene without any written prompts, or you can ask them to work together to write an original dialogue for their scene before they act it out. Shall I go online in class or not? One way to make this informed choice is for teachers to think critically about the aim of the lesson. Here are some questions we could ask ourselves:. Will the activity raise interest in the new topic area?
Is it more effective to go online to stimulate interest in the subject, or do we want in-class activities that incorporate an interactive, kinesthetic element to encourage students to brainstorm activities interactively? Do we want to go online to do a reading or listening exercise, or a vocabulary learning activity for input?
Can this be done more effectively online, or are your students in need of more face-to-face scaffolding of content and language before you go online? Are we encouraging students to develop their autonomy by going online to do some research on an essay or presentation topic? Do the students have access to a library from which to borrow books or download reliable materials?
Which is the better option for them, to go online or to use paper-based publications, such as books? This links into the aims of our courses. We have to bear in mind the strategy we want to take in order to develop students knowledge of the content, the language they need to function in the class, and also the opportunity for students to think critically about what they are learning.
I myself learnt through experience that when I am still being controlled by the actual technology, blended learning cannot help to manifest the aims of the course. References and Further Reading Garrison, D. Blended learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education 7 2 , 2nd Quarter , Career development and hermeneutical inquiry.
Part I: The framework of a hermeneutical approach. Canadian Journal of Counselling 22 3 , Walker, A. White, G. Technology Enhanced Language Learning Oxford: Oxford University Press. What kind of content, language and skills input do they need to be able to reach that goal? At the start of the unit, students have the opportunity to discuss the unit question online.
Ask whether it is the right time to take the students to the Online Discussion Board or not. Have the students already got a rapport with each other to work collaboratively face to face? If so, this might be a good time to do some learner training to demonstrate how the Online Discussion Board works.
This is a good way to encourage students to interact with the text online. The reading exercises present examples of sentence structures and vocabulary needed to do the final writing task.
This is a nice way to integrate the reading and writing activity. Watching a video may be a good way of expanding the students knowledge of the topic and vocabulary. If your students go online individually, they can watch the video at their own pace. If you prefer to have the class watch it together, you could play the video on a big screen. The online exercises help students understand the grammar and study skills in context with words that are related to the topic of the unit.
This is followed by graphic organizers that show the structure of the paragraph, and grammar exercises online. Students plan and write the assignment online. After writing, there is a peer review exercise that could be done.
If my students need practice in writing offline, in handwriting, I might ask the students to do so without going online. They either remember the material or they dont.
Teaching in a language class does not aim to convey a body of knowledge but to develop skills and skill development is notoriously hard to assess. Its even harder when the skills are meant for use outside the language classroom, but the only venue in which you can measure is the language classroom.
However, all is not lost. There are many good, solid principles to apply in measuring how your students are doing. Whats more, they dont require the assistance of test-construction experts or the statistical skills of a psychometrician. The idea that measurement benefits students can get lost in discussions of measuring progress. So often, we think of measurement as serving the educational institution which needs to promote people, issue grades, and so on or the teacher who needs to know how well a certain objective is being met.
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But its an established principle of memory science that frequent measurement or testing is one of the best aids in learning. Researchers at Kent State University tested the recall of several pairs of English-Lithuanian word pairs that is, they studied how well subjects remembered not just the Lithuanian or English words but also the pairing of those words across languages.
The main variable was how often a given subject was tested on the associations of the pairs. The researchers found a clear correlation between the number of retrievals the number of times a participant was required to recall the pairs on tests and the long-term memory of the pairs. Testing improves memory: Study examines why memory is enhanced by repeated retrieval. Teaching the Spoken Language: Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Accessed 31 October , at http: The files in pdf are suitable for the first time you test a given unit, at a point where your students are unlikely to have set free on the Internet any information about the tests.
However, in the large university where I teach, I prefer to use the doc files of the tests. I can customize these, changing things up for the sake of measurement security and for the sake of emphasizing particular things that happened in our class.
The idea is that the thinking of the students, as they work with material in the unit, will evolve and mature, so that the answer they give at one point in the unit may not be the same as the answer theyd give at another point. Or, if it remains the same, it will be better grounded at the end of a unit because of all the thought that has gone into it.
As you measure students progress, use this reiterative questioning. See how the students thoughts have evolved or strengthened and communicate with the student about what you see, asking them to reflect as well on the development of their ideas. However, you probably have the time to make at least a few measurement items more open- ended. This can take the form of answers in two or three sentences, discussions that the students then report on, or any number of other formats.
Many critical thinking tasks in Q offer the opportunity for such output. Either use one of these formats for measurement or make up your own. I have. It is an unpleasant feeling to watch your students have an unsuccessful experience in the language that they are trying to learn, especially when you chose the activity. I admit, too, that after such an experience Ive thought that communicative activities just dont work.
Communicative activities in general encourage students to learn in creative and meaningful ways while promoting fluency1. I have isolation also discovered that how the language teacher executes the activity is just and as important as the activity itself. One mistake that I made was to have my students attempt to do a communicative grammar activity too soon. Ur suggests that there are four parts to grammar lessons: Presentation, isolation and explanation, practice and test.
However, the practice step can be broken down further into three test additional steps which build upon each other2. The first type of practice activities should be devoted only to the form of the grammar being taught. This gives a chance for students to understand the rules. The next type of practice activities allows students to focus on form plus the meaning of the grammar point. Last are the communicative grammar activities which allow for freer expression by students while still utilizing the taught forms.
As you can see, there is a lot of work to be orchestrated by the instructor before attempting these activities. References and Further Reading 1 Richards, J. Approaches and methods in language teaching. Grammar practice activities. The practice stage of a grammar lesson has three distinctive parts: Here are examples of all three types of practice activities focusing on conjunctions.
Insert a comma where necessary. The conjunction is 2. I lost my credit card so I need to get another one. We will visit Paris and then we will fly to London. Do you want tea or coffee? Add and, but, or or so to the following sentences. Add a comma if necessary. I cant download it. Each student will have different answers which makes the activity interesting.
Ask 5 students the following questions. Students should use and, but, or or so and complete sentences when answering.
What is your favorite food? What food do you not like? What two places would you like to visit on your next holiday? What are two things you usually do on weekends? What reason do you give your teacher when you are late to class?
In Q Second Edition, each unit has a communicative grammar activity designed to give students freer and meaningful practice using the grammar introduced in the unit. In order to write well, we need to know a lot of words, and we need to know a lot about each word so we can use it to say what we mean.
In fact, without the knowledge of many words, our writing is stymied or should I say crimped? A word choice transmits not only meaning, but tone and subtleties of meaning such as familiarity or distance, precision or vagueness, certainty or ambiguity, earnestness or light-heartedness and more. For academic writing, this becomes especially challenging. In order to communicate as I intend, I need to know the ways in which words vary and then I need a wide variety of words from which to make my choices.
Why isnt vocabulary development included in every writing class? Perhaps we underestimate the difficulty of this task and prefer to spend precious classroom time on other issues. Or perhaps we dont know how to integrate word learning into writing in a way that is relevant to the writing task. But by not spending time developing our students vocabulary, we are hindering their writing development and academic success.
References and Further Reading Coxhead, A. Essentials of teaching academic vocabulary. Houghton Mifflin. Santos, T. Professors reactions to the academic writing of nonnative-speaking students. Q Second Edition incorporates both the Oxford and the Academic Word List corpus-based lists that identify the most useful words to know in a general and academic context. Read together as a class, drawing attention to vocabulary with questions such as: Which academic words are used here?
For each AWL word, suggest a less formal word that the author might have used. What did the AWL word add? Which everyday words are used here? What do they add? Ask them to go back and refer to the earlier reading texts and Quick Write, and circle important words that they want to use in the writing assignment. During the editing stage, check the following: Are there too few academic words? Too many? Does each academic word mean what you intend?
Are words combined accurately? Lexical variety: Are any words over-used? Or are the same words repeated in the same sentence? For example, the vocabulary games on iQ Online make for a good revision tool.
The time limit challenges students, providing an incentive for them to repeat the activity. In order to help learners acquire this skill, it is important to consider first the special challenges language learners face when trying to listen and take notes. One of the most self-evident issues is that it takes a language learner longer to process audio input than it does a native speaker. One reason for this is that a persons short-term memory is shorter in L2 than in L1.
People employ short-term memory usually measured in seconds when processing audio materials. For example, when listening to a long sentence, the listener may need to hold the whole utterance in his mind and review it in order to comprehend it adequately.
For the L1 listener this happens naturally, without the person being aware of it. However, for the language learner, this mental review process may not always be possible in the available time. A native speaker is grounded from childhood in the structures of the language and knows what to expect. We know, in fact, that people do not actually hear every word when they listen. But they hear enough to be able to parse out the meaning or reconstruct the sense quickly.
They can fill in the blanks with words not actually heard. In the face of these challenges, it may seem that adding note-taking to the listening tasks in the classroom may be a step too far for many.
How, for example, can we expect high beginning students to listen and write at the same time? However, when the tasks are appropriate for the learners level and carefully implemented, note-taking can actually improve comprehension.
References and Further Reading 1 Rost, Michael.
L2 Listening, Routledge, Nov. Martin, Katherine I and Nick Ellis. Teachers sometimes feel that this is giving away too much information and that the listening will not be a good test of students skills. Remember that the listening tasks in Q are practice, not a test. Pre-teaching vocabulary and bringing out students prior knowledge simply gives them tools that an L1 listener would bring to the task. For example, in Level 2 the note-taking strategy has students sketch plants and animals for their notes.
This is a quick way of recording information that would be difficult to put down in words. Ask if students ever use sketches in their L1 notes. For what subject matter would they be likely to do this? For challenging material, you might want to warm up first. Tell students that you are going to play a portion of the recording and that you want them to tell you just one thing that they understood even if it is only a few words.
Play a short segment of the recording and then elicit answers from the class. This gives students a feeling of success and as they listen to their classmates responses, they get more insight into the content of the listening. Does the listening describe a process? Then some kind of flow chart might be useful. Does it contrast two things such as pros and cons in an argument?
Students might consider a T-chart. Many Q activities replicate this process in the classroom, asking students to compare notes with a partner, ask and answer questions about what they have heard, or add more information to their notes.
WRITING non-native for everyday social and communicative purposes and, for many, for vocational, educational, and professional needs. It has been variously described as a product a piece of writing with a particular form and the expectation of correctness. And as a process a journey that takes writers through stages where they discover they have something to say and find their voice.
From the cognitive perspective, it is seen as a set of skills and knowledge that resides within the individual writer and from the sociocultural perspective as a socially and culturally situated set of literacy practices shared by a particular community1.
With these perspectives in mind, all teachers of writing must ask: How can I help my students improve their writing and what are best practices in the classroom? An important first step is undertaking a needs assessment, whether informal or formal, to learn what kinds of writing students need. From this assessment, a syllabus or curriculum can be developed or a textbook series selected that is a good match with your students needs. This usually leads to expository writing in which students learn to develop a thesis statement and support this controlling idea in the body of their writing.
Analytic or persuasive writing is the most challenging type of academic writing because students must learn to state and defend a position or opinion using appropriate evidence2.
These kinds of academic writing tasks require students to become familiar with a variety of text types and genres, one of my course goals. References and Further Reading 1 Weigle, S. Considerations for teaching second language writing. Celce- Murcia, D. Snow Eds. Boston, MA: National Geographic Learning Heinle Cengage. Ferris, D. Teaching college writing to diverse student populations.
Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. You can then use open-ended questions to help students expand their ideas based on what they have learned in the readings and rethink and clarify their thinking before writing the unit assignment. Have students read and critique the model. Through the models, students develop awareness of the discourse features inherent in the kinds of writing required in each unit writing assignment. For instance, they are provided with a list of features of a good summary, then they have to analyze and compare sample summaries and decide which samples best exemplify the features of a good summary.
So, for example, students learn how to use the grammatical notions of parallel structure and ellipsis and then apply these to their unit writing. Writing tips, for instance, guide students toward understanding the notion of unity in writing.
Students learn that their thesis statements must be supported by details; doing so will create more coherence in their writing. Many students beginning their academic study today come to campus equipped with strong technology skills, yet they soon discover that they need to make the transition from experienced users of technology for social purposes to effective users of technology for academic purposes. Becoming familiar with and engaging in a variety of genres is part of academic study and is critical for both native NS and non-native English speaking NNS students.
For NNS students, however, learning to function in the genres and with the discourse conventions of their discourse communities poses a particular challenge Cheng, , p. Academic writing is one of the many discourse communities in which ESL students need to function and to follow specific conventions. While ESL programs have long prepared students for traditional academic writing assignments, like essays and research papers, formal online writing is often neglected in ESL instruction despite the growing need for such preparation.
Reasons for not including formal online writing assignments can range from limited resources, instructors lack of confidence in their own technology skills, and questions about the relevance of this type of writing. A potential consequence of not addressing such writing is that NNS students may be less prepared for these types of assignments, which are becoming more common within hybrid classes, or blended learning contexts, or even in courses that are fully online. If ESL programs want to ensure that they prepare ESL students adequately for academic study, they need to consider ways to incorporate online writing components into their classes.
In addition to serving as a pathway to academic literacy development Cheng, , p. The same advances in technology that have afforded academic instructors with a variety of media which students use to demonstrate comprehension and applications of course content also need to be considered as additional tools for ESL teachers to use in their language teaching.
The Q: Skills for Success series follows a blended learning approach that prepares students for future success and incorporates the benefits of online academic writing that are specific to language learning Fig 1. Among online technologies, the discussion board is one of the easiest tools to use TeacherStream, , but students need to use the technology appropriately for formal online writing.
Consequently, instructors need to make sure that they use this type of writing assignment effectively. In this paper, we will first address the learning benefits associated with the use of discussion boards and then outline a structured approach to implementing discussion boards that maximizes their benefits and reinforces the idea that writing in online threaded discussions should be treated as a legitimate formal genre of academic writing.
An examination of various sources that focus on the use of discussion boards with native speakers in educational settings e. These types of posting activities typically include responses to and reflections on questions posed by the instructor or the textbook, as well as replies to other students posts.
Some discussion board activities may also require students to integrate ideas from course materials e. One outcome of these online tasks is that they prepare NNS students for future course work by developing their academic literacy skills Cheng, ; Kingston, because a discussion board affords regular opportunities for students to practice their writing while following conventions for traditional types of academic writing, such as assignments with multi-paragraph structure, a main idea, and adequate support.
At the same time, such regular practice affords NNS students additional opportunities for language learning: Students also hone their critical thinking skills through discussion board writing, partly because of the asynchronous nature of the tool: Students who are shy, and therefore less likely to speak in class, can find a voice and take part in conversations online Meloni, The confidence that students gain in online interactions can also transfer into the classroom.
Another outcome is that discussion board writing increases students sense of audience. Because their writing is posted online, students are aware that their classmates can access and read their posts. This means that the typical classroom writing audience of one i. Before implementing discussion board activities, teachers need to decide how and for what purposes these activities are going to be used. Traditionally, through their responses to questions posted by the instructor or through replies to specific classmates posts, students can demonstrate authentic and meaningful use of language.
Effective discussion board tasks require students to explain opinions and ideas clearly, to integrate their own ideas with those from other sources including those of their classmates , to synthesize ideas from multiple sources, and to use appropriate.
Effective writing assignments in blended courses, both academic and ESL, seamlessly integrate discussion board writing prompts with the structure and content of the textbook or other class materials in one coherent framework. The authors of the Q: Skills for Success series follow this approach through their integration of the materials and activities in iQ, the online component of the series, and the Student Book.
Prior to implementation, instructors also need to assess the level of students skill in using the online courseware that is available to them. Teachers should also have students explore model posts to discover the differences between discussion board writing and other forms of online communication with which students are more familiar e. Another consideration is the level of teacher participation in the posting activity.
Based on students level, instructors choices can range from posting regularly and, thus, serving as writing models for their students, to remaining an observer. However, at some point, all instructors need to shift from online participants who facilitate effective discussion board interactions to offline observers who monitor students interactions Online discussions for blended learning, ; TeacherStream, so that the class can learn to maintain effective communication that is independent of the teachers guidance and modeling.
Since major goals of discussion board writing include developing critical thinking skills and reacting effectively and properly to the ideas of others; teachers should ensure that writing prompts contain questions that provide natural practice in these skills.
The materials in the Q: Responding thoughtfully, n. The discussion board activities in iQ gradually increase in complexity by level and require students to show increased skill in reflecting these elements of effective online writing.
In order for students to view discussion board writing as a legitimate academic genre and a relevant component of a course, it is critical that teachers provide routine, structured feedback Blogs and discussion boards, ; Kingston, ; TeacherStream, One common approach to providing constructive feedback is through rubrics that assess quality, quantity, and language use, as well as the observance of proper posting netiquette, which is defined as polite behavior for communicating online in a public forum.
It is important that students become familiar with the writing criteria that their teacher will assess; in the iQ Discussion Board Teacher Pack, one of the reproducible worksheets is a discovery activity in which students apply a sample rubric to a model post. For the teachers convenience, reproducible rubrics are also included in the iQ Discussion Board Teacher Pack.
Once students are aware of the criteria in the rubrics, instructors can encourage them to use these rubrics as pre-submission checklists and for informal evaluations of their own writing.
When used effectively, discussion board activities offer NNS students a platform for rehears[ing] academic writing Cheng, , p. Students are likely to encounter the need for such language functions in future academic and professional contexts Online forums: Given that gaining proficiency this genre of writing poses specific challenges to language students, it is essential to implement online academic writing within ESL courses.
For these reasons, discussion board writing activities are a valuable tool in ESL instruction. Sigrun Biesenbach-Lucas received her M.
She has also served as a site reviewer for CEA. Donette Brantner -Artenie holds an M. She taught EFL in the U. Peace Corps in Romania and has conducted training programs for EFL teachers and teacher trainers overseas. In the U. She is the co-author of the top level of a grammar textbook series that follows a blended approach. Blogs and discussion boards. Vanderbilt University, Center for Teaching. Boothon, M. Tips for writing thoughtful discussion responses.
Rasmussen College. Retrieved from http: Cheng, R. Computer-mediated scaffolding in L2 students academic literacy development. Discussion posts. Walden University. Online Writing Center. Generating and facilitating engaging and effective online discussions. University of Oregon Teaching Effectiveness Program. Goodfellow, R. Supporting writing assessment in online learning. Holland, J.
Implications of shifting technology in education. TechTrends, 38 3 , Efficient and effective online discussion forums. Paper presented at the Assessment Teaching and Learning Conference Lafford, P. CMC technologies for teaching foreign languages: Whats on the horizon? Meloni, J. Technologies for teaching: Strategies and pitfalls. The Education Digest, 76 8 , Online discussions for blended learning.
California State University, Sacramento. Academic Technology and Creative Services. Online forums: Responding thoughtfully.
Writing Commons. Sample discussion board questions that work. McMurry University. Mastering online discussion board facilitation: Resource guide. Retrieved from https: Wijeyewardene, I. Against the odds: Teaching writing in an online environment. Wozniak, H. Online discussions: Promoting effective student to student interaction. Skills for Success Second Edition. Example Post Worksheet Part One: Response to Discussion Board Prompt Response to Classmates Post.. Teaching Notes Objectives A fundamental objective of a Discussion Board writing activity is for students to gain awareness of the conventions applied in the genre of online academic writing and to practice writing in this genre.
At the beginning of a unit, students use the Discussion Board activity to further activate prior knowledge about a new unit theme after discussing the initial Unit Questions and listening to The Q Classroom online. At the end of a unit, the Discussion Board tasks provide opportunities for students to apply content knowledge, grammar structures and vocabulary, as well as writing strategies that they learned in the unit.
All the Discussion Board questions are designed to encourage critical thinking. Instructors can decide if they would like their students to respond to all of the given questions or select specific questions which they want their students to address.
Additionally, instructors can post their own questions to which students respond. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. Teachers Pack Organization Prior to introducing the Discussion Board to your students, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the contents of the Discussion Board, the specifics of its navigation as well as deciding on an implementation strategy.
These teaching notes discuss all three items. In order to help you maximize the efficacy of the Discussion Board, additional resources have been provided. These will be referenced and explained within these teaching notes: The Unit Question Discussion takes place at the beginning of the unit and contains a few questions to further the discussion of the Unit Question after completing The Q Classroom activities in the Student Book.
The Unit Question Reflection is provided at the end of the unit in order to reflect upon what the student has learned. In addition, the teacher may create new threads either by using the supplemental questions provided, the Challenge Questions, or any other question he or she deems appropriate. Teaching Strategies In terms of teaching strategies, the teacher must decide upon his or her level of involvement.
You should decide if you want to participate in the online discussions or if you only want to read and evaluate your students posts. If you post to the discussions, students can be encouraged by your engagement, but if you remain a reader, you can retain the focus on the students writing and ideas. In Level 3, students compose two basic types of posts: Depending on the ability level of the class, the teacher can assign one or both of the optional Challenge Questions.
Q Skills for Success 3 Listening and Speaking Teachers Handbook
In addition to the initial post to these Challenge Questions, the teacher can decide to assign replies to Challenge Question posts. Rubrics have been included to help grade the student posts and their replies to a classmates post. It is important that students write an appropriate response that has complete sentences and uses formal language.
This also means that the students reply is directly connected to the ideas in the question or the classmates post. It is important that students use the Discussion Board to express themselves, and do so in a way that is appropriate for the classroom context. In addition to using the rubrics, assess the students posts by printing them out or making electronic copies, and adding questions, comments, and other feedback.
With students permission, you can use good posts as models to illustrate strategies for effective writing. You can also collect language use examples from students posts to illustrate grammar points and use these for group editing practice. Classroom Instruction Prior to First Post: Example Post Worksheet Included in the student materials are instruction on the use of the Discussion Board as well as a two part student worksheet on how to write good posts.
In part one, Responding to a Unit Discussion Question, there is an example of a discussion board post that you can review with students to discover the structure and content of an effective post and to see how the instructor will apply the evaluation rubrics.
In part two, Responding to a Classmates Post, there is an example of a students response to the classmates post from part one. The example response models the structure and the language that are appropriate for responding to other students posts. You may choose to do parts one and two of the worksheet together or separately. In either case, be sure to review the instructions on how to post to the Discussion Board. Use the page entitled Posting to the Discussion Board: Student Instructions.
Follow up with a test post to ensure that all students know how to use the tool properly. Part One: Responding to a Discussion Question 1. After talking in class about the Unit Question and the Unit Question Discussion questions, tell students that they will extend those ideas that they discussed in an assignment outside of class.
Distribute the student worksheet, Example Discussion Board Post, to students. Tell them that they are going to learn how to write on a discussion board online and share information with their classmates and instructor when they are not in the classroom.
Review the sample Unit Question Discussion. Start with the unit academic subject area, Urban Planning. Point out that there are two additional questions that the students should address. Note that this is only an example unit and does not appear in the book. Have students read the example post and answer worksheet questions 1 through 4. Have students compare their responses with a partner before checking answers with the whole class.
If possible, project the post on the classroom screen, and highlight the relevant parts as you identify and discuss them with the class.
Review the discussion board rubric with students in task 5 of the worksheet. Have students apply the rubric to the example post and try to explain why they would give a certain rating in each category. In the last task on the worksheet, the Follow-up task, have students brainstorm, in groups or pairs, ideas for responding to a new example question. Debrief with the whole class and check that students understand the process. Review instructions on how to post a response to a classmates post.
Use the page entitled Student Instructions: Posting to the Discussion Board. Assigning the First Discussion Board Post 1. Assign the first Unit Question Discussion response, and indicate the deadline for the post. After all responses have been posted, have students read all of their classmates posts. Then in class, have students discuss the ideas in the posts to find commonalities and differences or to put ideas into possible categories. Use the same process for the Unit Question Reflection.
At the end of each unit, the teacher can assign one or both of the Challenge Questions. See complete list of Challenge Questions for all units. Part Two: Example Response Worksheet Prior to the first response assignment, it will be helpful if the teacher discusses with the class the appropriate approach to responding to classmates ideas. Part Two of the sample worksheet, Responding to a Classmates Post, provides an example response to a classmates post and comprehension questions.
Other useful points to consider include:. Distribute part two of the example Discussion Board worksheet, Responding to a Classmates Post, to students. Tell them that they are going to learn how to respond appropriately to a classmates writing. Have students quickly review the original example discussion board post. Point out that this post is the same one that they used in the Part One. Have students read the example response and answer worksheet questions 1 through 7.
Review the discussion board rubric with students in task 8 of the worksheet. Have students apply the rubric to the example response and try to explain why they would give a certain rating in each category.
In the last task on the worksheet, the Follow-up task, have students brainstorm, in groups or pairs, ideas for another response.
Assigning the First Response to a Classmates Post 1.
Have students read all their classmates posts. Assign students a response task. Indicate the deadline for the response. Options for response tasks include the following: Students make their own choice when selecting a classmates post to which they respond.
It is helpful if you require that students respond to a classmate who has not yet received any replies. Pair students with a partner and require that they read and respond to their partners post.
In a more advanced group of students, you can assign students to respond to more than one classmate. For example, students can be asked to respond to a classmate with whom they agree and to one with whom they disagree. After all responses have been posted, have students read their classmates response or responses. Then in class, if necessary, have students discuss any unclear, surprising, or additional points from the responses. Student Instructions to familiarize yourself with the online writing process.
The student instructions are included in the student materials. After completing the Example Discussion Board Post worksheet and reviewing the included rubric with your class, go over the student instructions with the students. If you have computer projection in the classroom, you may go online and demonstrate this process to the students.
Remind students that when they post to the Discussion Board, they need to make sure that they choose the correct Unit number and the correct question. Log in to iQ Online. Click on the Discussion Board icon. Select the appropriate class. Enter Activities and select the appropriate Unit in the navigation pane.
If you wish to participate in a Unit Discussion, you can follow the same instructions that the students use. However, if you want to assign Challenge Questions [refer to the included list of Challenge Questions], or if you want to pose questions of your own, follow these steps:. In the subject line, write: Unit X: Challenge Question 1, or Unit X: Your own writing topic. It is important that you identify the unit number as this will not be automatically added.
Copy and paste your selected Challenge Question, or type your own question, in the text box. Click on Post. As the instructor, only you have the ability to delete threads and individual replies, including entire Discussions.
However, before you click Delete, be certain that you want to perform this action as it cannot be undone. If you want to delete a single student post in a discussion or an individual response to someone elses post, go to that post, and click on Delete Reply. If you want to delete an entire Discussion, click on Delete Conversation. Good academic practice includes planning and carrying out online writing assignments offline first. By drafting and saving a post using a word-processing program, students can review and make changes to their writing before uploading the post.
This practice also encourages another important academic skill, which is to keep a saved copy of ones writing. Because your students cannot delete any posts from the Discussion Board themselves, they will need to contact you to delete a post for them if they made a mistake or posted to the wrong Discussion.
Advise your students to follow whatever process you deem appropriate; for example, you can have students send you an email with a request to delete a post. Review your students posts regularly and in a timely fashion so that you can address issues as they develop or delete inappropriate posts.
Writing a Discussion Board Post 20 points 15 points 10 points 0 points The post answers the question s clearly and completely. The post has clear and specific explanations and examples.
The post shows careful thinking about the topic. Sentences are complete and have appropriate final punctuation.
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The post correctly includes vocabulary and grammar from the unit. The length of the post is appropriate. Writing a Discussion Board Response 20 points 15 points 10 points 0 points The response answers the question s clearly and completely.
The response uses clear and specific ideas from the classmates post. The response shows careful thinking about the classmates ideas. The post includes vocabulary and grammar structures from the unit. The response includes formal and polite language. The response is appropriately structured, positive opening statement and a closing sentence. The response includes one or more of the following: Challenge Questions You may choose to assign these Challenge Questions for students to respond to at the end of a unit.
You will need to post the Challenge Question for each unit yourself as a new thread or threads. Unit 1: Sociology Unit Question: How do you make a good first impression? How can you make a good first impression on someone when that person cannot see you for example, when you are talking on the phone, or when you are writing an email message? When you realize that you made a bad first impression on someone, what can you do to change that persons impression of you?
Unit 2: Nutritional Science Unit Question: What makes food taste good? Do you think you are a supertaster, a medium taster, or a nontaster? Why do you think you fit this category? If you have travelled to or lived in a different country, did you change your normal eating behaviors and food you normally ate to the norms of that other country?
Unit 3: Psychology Unit Question: How has technology affected our lives? You probably use technology in many ways every day. However, people from your parents and grandparents generations grew up with little or no technology.
For example, many did not have computers or smart phones. How did they manage without that technology? In this unit you learned about cars that think. In the future, what objects or places do you believe will also think for us, and how? Unit 4: Marketing Unit Question: Does advertising help or harm us?
Think about ads that you have seen on TV or in magazines. How are ads that appear on the Internet different from ads on TV or in a magazine?
Then, choose one topic and describe how you can provide information that viewers need in a memorable way.
Unit 5: Behavioral Science Unit Question: Why do people take risks? Extreme sports have become very popular in the last twenty years. Why do you think that more and more people are attracted to extreme sports? When is it important not to take a risk? Choose a specific situation, and explain reasons for avoiding risk in that situation. Unit 6: Philosophy Unit Question: Why do people help each other? Have you experienced the bystander effect? What happened, and did you do anything?
Why or why not? What is more altruistic: Unit 7: Economics Unit Question: How can a small amount of money make a big difference? Which has a bigger impact: In the idea of random acts of kindness, a person does small things for strangers.
Examples include paying the coffee of the person behind you at a coffee shop or leaving flowers at a neighbors door. Why do you think people do these acts of kindness? What is the effect on the people that receive these acts of kindness?
Unit 8: What does it take to be successful? In this unit, you learned about success in the car racing industry. Choose another sport or sporting event that is also successful from a sponsorship perspective, and describe why it assures profits for its sponsors. Think of a situation in which you made sacrifices in order to be successful. Describe what you did and why you did it. Was it worth it in the end? Sociology Challenge Question 2 2. Help students generate ideas about how they can recognize that they have left a bad impression on someone; then, brainstorm on some ways in which students can repair this bad impression.
Nutritional Science Challenge Question 1 1. Observe body language and gestures. Develop a variety of listening skills. Learn about other cultures. Have fun. Of course, video use in class is very different from watching TV at home. Its important for your students to understand that youll expect them to be actively involved and thinking, even when the lights are out!
Q TIPS Video tips for Q Second Edition 1 Be prepared Before you present a video clip to your class, watch it multiple times yourself and think of types of activities that students can do before, during, and after watching the video. Note how the content of the video fits into what youve taught recently.
Even better, will they be able to come up with their own questions about what they see? Are there grammatical structures in the video clip that youd like students to repeat? Are there idioms or two-word verbs that youd like to point out? Heres a test to know whether the excerpt will be easy for your students to understand. Play the clip with the sound off the first time you view it.
Ask yourself questions such as the following: Who are the speakers? Where are they? What is their relationship? What are they probably talking about? Are they happy or angry? Are there any clues about the kind of work that they do?
Most of the information we gain from a video clip is visual. If you can figure out who the people in the video are, what they are doing, and where they are without sound, your students will be able to as well. Pre-viewing activities introduce students to the content or mood of the clip, activating the background knowledge they already have on the topic featured in the video. Students should also be introduced to the key vocabulary of the video.
Here are some pre-viewing activities that will take very little time and work for you to prepare: Discuss the title Write the title of the video clip on the board and ask students to make predictions about the content of the video. What do you want to know about? Give students a short introduction to the segment they will see. Have students work with a partner to write a question they would like answered in the video. After students watch the video, check to see whose questions were answered.
Play some, or all, of the video without the sound. Then point to each question word and see what students can tell you about what theyve seen. Stop and Start After students have seen the video once without the sound, start the clip from the beginning again. Pause the video every ten seconds or so or after a complete conversational interchange. Have students repeat a comment, word, or statement that they heard on the segment. Give students time to ask or write a question. Use this time to find out what students understand and where they need help.
Sound Only This technique turns the video into a listening track. Cover the screen and then play the video. Ask students to guess what is happening as they listen. Are you most interested in the content of an interview or discussion? Do you want them to concentrate on pronunciation and stress or listening skills? Or, do you want to use the clip as a jumping off point for students to create their own discussion questions and develop spoken fluency?
Choose one major goal and then look for creative ways to integrate your goal into the post-viewing work. Ask students to retell what they have just seen. What do you think? Have students state their opinions. Put them into pairs or small groups. Ask them to discuss what they saw and state if they agree or disagree with the points of view shown in the video. Role-play a scene Put students into pairs or small groups. Have them recreate a scene from the video clip. Students can act out the scene without any written prompts, or you can ask them to work together to write an original dialogue for their scene before they act it out.
One way to make this informed choice is for teachers to think critically about the aim of the lesson. Here are some questions we could ask ourselves: Will the activity raise interest in the new topic area? Is it more effective to go online to stimulate interest in the subject, or do we want in-class activities that incorporate an interactive, kinesthetic element to encourage students to brainstorm activities interactively? Do we want to go online to do a reading or listening exercise, or a vocabulary learning activity for input?
Can this be done more effectively online, or are your students in need of more face-to-face scaffolding of content and language before you go online? Are we encouraging students to develop their autonomy by going online to do some research on an essay or presentation topic?
Do the students have access to a library from which to borrow books or download reliable materials? Which is the better option for them, to go online or to use paper-based publications, such as books?
This links into the aims of our courses. We have to bear in mind the strategy we want to take in order to develop students knowledge of the content, the language they need to function in the class, and also the opportunity for students to think critically about what they are learning. I myself learnt through experience that when I am still being controlled by the actual technology, blended learning cannot help to manifest the aims of the course.
Blended learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education 7 2 , 2nd Quarter , Career development and hermeneutical inquiry.
Part I : The framework of a hermeneutical approach. Canadian Journal of Counselling 22 3 , Walker, A.
Q Skills for Success 3 Reading and Writing Teachers Handbook
White, G. Q TIPS Blended learning tips for iQ Online 1 Always think what your end product is going to be at the end of a unit What do your students need to be able to do at the end? What kind of content, language and skills input do they need to be able to reach that goal?Cheryl Boyd Zimmerman. Celce- Murcia, D. Any day of the week, there is something to do at Trailside Park. Ask each group to share their answers with the class.
One outcome of these online tasks is that they prepare NNS students for future course work by developing their academic literacy skills Cheng, ; Kingston, because a discussion board affords regular opportunities for students to practice their writing while following conventions for traditional types of academic writing, such as assignments with multi-paragraph structure, a main idea, and adequate support.
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