The essential cosmic perspective / Jeffrey Bennett [et al.]. -- 6th ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 1. Astronomy--Textbook. Download PDF The Essential Cosmic Perspective, PDF Download The Essential Cosmic Perspective, Download The Essential Cosmic. This books (The Essential Cosmic Perspective [PDF]) Made by Jeffrey O. Bennett About Books Note: You are downloading a standalone product.

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plane. Most large moons orbit their planets in this same direction, which is also the direction of the Sun's rotation. Figure The Solar System. cosmicContext. Education, Inc. or its affiliates. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Bennett, Jeffrey O., author. The essential cosmic perspective / Jeffrey Bennett. This. The Essential Cosmic Perspective. publication was reported as an alleged copyright violation. Publishers may not upload content protected by copyright.

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Bennett About Books Note: You are downloading a standalone product; MasteringAstronomy does not come packaged with this content. That package includes ISBN MasteringAstronomy is not a self-paced technology and should only be downloadd when required by an instructor. For Introductory Astronomy Courses The Essential Cosmic Perspective, Seventh Edition gives non-science majors a streamlined, cutting edge introduction to astronomy built on a strong tradition of effective pedagogy and coverage.

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B Earth must lie completely within the Moon's penumbra. C Earth must be near aphelion in its orbit of the Sun. D The Moon's umbra must touch the area where you are located. E The Moon's penumbra must touch the area where you are located. Answer: D 41 If part of the full Moon passes through Earth's umbra, we will see a n A total lunar eclipse. B penumbral lunar eclipse. C partial lunar eclipse.

D partial solar eclipse. E annular eclipse. Answer: C 42 If the Moon is relatively far from Earth, so that the umbra does not reach Earth, someone directly behind the umbra will see A a penumbral lunar eclipse. B a partial lunar eclipse. C a partial solar eclipse. D an annular eclipse. E no eclipse. Answer: D 43 When are eclipse seasons? A in the spring and fall B in the summer and winter C when the nodes of the Moon's orbit are nearly aligned with the Sun D when Earth and the Sun are aligned with one another E during an eclipse Answer: C 44 What effect does the precession of the Moon's nodes have on eclipses?

A there is a lunar eclipse every 6 months B there is a solar eclipse every 6 months C the eclipse seasons occur less than 6 months apart D the vernal equinox will be in Aquarius in a few hundred years E there are never two solar eclipses in the same year Answer: C 45 What is the Saros cycle?

A the roughly 6-month period between eclipse seasons B the year cycle over which the pattern of eclipses repeats C the period between total solar eclipses D the period between a total solar eclipse and a total lunar eclipse E the period between eclipses Answer: B 46 Ancient people who knew the Saros cycle could A completely predict every lunar eclipse.

B completely predict every solar eclipse. C predict what type of eclipse would occur. D predict when they'd see the next total solar eclipse in their area. E predict when an eclipse would happen, but not necessarily what type and where it would be visible.

Answer: E 47 What happens during the apparent retrograde motion of a planet? A The planet rises in the west and sets in the east. B The planet appears to move westward with respect to the stars over a period of many nights. C The planet moves backward through the sky over the course of a night. D The planet moves backward in its orbit around the Sun. E The planet moves through constellations that are not part of the zodiac.

Answer: B 48 Why are lunar eclipses more commonly seen than solar eclipses?

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A Lunar eclipses occur at night and are easier to see. C The Earth casts a bigger shadow than the Moon. D The tilt of the Moon's axis is smaller than the Earth's. E The Moon is much closer to the Earth than the Sun. Answer: C 49 What causes the apparent retrograde motion of the planets? A As Earth passes another planet, its gravitational pull slows down the other planet so that it appears to be traveling backward.

B When planets are farther from the Sun, they move slower than when they are nearer the Sun; it is during this slower period that they appear to move backwards. C The other planets never really appear to move backward; the background stars shift due to Earth's revolution around the Sun. D As Earth passes another planet, the other planet appears to move backward with respect to the background stars, but the planet's motion does not actually change.

E Apparent retrograde motion is an illusion created by turbulence in Earth's atmosphere. Answer: D 50 Which of the following never appears to exhibit retrograde motion? A You can demonstrate parallax simply by holding up a finger and looking at it alternately from your left and right eyes. B The existence of stellar parallax is direct proof that Earth orbits the Sun. C Measurement of stellar parallax allows us to determine distances to nearby stars. D The technique of stellar parallax was used by Hubble to determine that the Andromeda Galaxy M 31 is about 2 million light-years away.

E Ancient astronomers were unable to measure parallax and used the absence of observed parallax as an argument in favor of an Earth-centered universe. Answer: D 52 Which of the following statements about stellar parallax is true?

A We observe all stars to exhibit at least a slight amount of parallax.

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B Stellar parallax was first observed by ancient Greek astronomers. C The amount of parallax we see depends on how fast a star is moving relative to us. D It takes at least 10 years of observation to measure a star's parallax. E The closer a star is to us, the more parallax it exhibits. Answer: E 53 We can't detect stellar parallax with naked-eye observations. Which of the following would make parallax easier to observe? A increasing the size of Earth's orbit B speeding up Earth's rotational motion C slowing down Earth's rotational motion D speeding up the precession of Earth's axis E getting away from streetlights Answer: A 54 Why were ancient peoples unable to detect stellar parallax?

A They did not look for it. B They could not see distant stars. C They did not have the ability to measure very small angles. D They did not observe for long enough periods of time. E They did detect it, but they rejected the observations. Answer: C 2. Earth rotates once each day.

Earth revolves around the Sun once each year. The direction of Earth's axis in space precesses with a period of 26, years. Stars appear to move randomly in the local solar neighborhood. The universe is expanding. Answer: C 2 In the year A. Answer: C 3 The Big Dipper will look different , years from now than it does today. Answer: D 4 The Moon rises in the east and sets in the west. Answer: A 5 The stars of Orion's belt rise in the east and set in the west. Answer: A 6 A million years from now, Alpha Centauri will no longer be the nearest star system to our own.

Answer: D 7 If Earth's axis had no tilt, would we still have seasons? Answer: We would no longer have seasons, because the Sun's light would hit at the same angle all throughout the year, depending only on where you lived.

The slight change in distance between Earth and the Sun during the year would not produce much of an effect. Answer: This statement does not make sense because the celestial sphere is a concept and not a physical object. Answer: This statement does not make sense because we cannot see through the band of light we call the Milky Way to external galaxies; the dark fissure is gas and dust blocking our view. Answer: The solar system lies in the outer parts of the thin disk of a spiral galaxy.

Thus when we look along the plane of the disk, we see large numbers of stars that, to the naked eye, merge into a band of light. When we look out of the plane of the disk, there are very few stars and the night sky is much darker.

Answer: This statement does not make sense. The stars aren't really rising and setting, they only appear to rise in the east and set in the west because the Earth rotates. Answer: This statement does not make sense because Jupiter, like all the planets, is always found very close to the ecliptic in the sky.

The ecliptic passes through the constellations of the zodiac, so Jupiter can appear to be only in one of the 12 zodiac constellations—and Ursa Major is not one of these.


Where is the north celestial pole in our sky? Is Polaris a circumpolar star in our sky? Describe the meridian in our sky. Describe the celestial equator in our sky.

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Answer: A. Yes, for any location in the Northern Hemisphere; no, for any location in the Southern Hemisphere. Polaris is circumpolar because it never rises or sets in our sky.

The meridian is a half-circle that stretches from the due south point on the horizon, through the zenith, to the due north point on the horizon.

Thus, an observer on the Moon would be looking at the night side of Earth. During the phase of full Moon, what phase would you see for Earth? Would it be day or night at your home? Answer: During the full Moon, it would be daytime and you would see the phase of new Earth.

During the phase of new Moon, what phase would you see for Earth?

Answer: During the new Moon, it would be nighttime and you would see the phase of full Earth. At what phase of the Moon would you see sunset?

What phase of Earth would you see at this time?

Answer: Sunset would occur at the Moon's first-quarter phase. You would see Earth in thirdquarter phase at this time. At what phase of the Moon would you see sunrise? Answer: Sunrise would occur at the Moon's third-quarter phase.

You would see Earth in firstquarter phase at this time. Answer: During a lunar eclipse, you would see Earth pass in front of the Sun. It would be completely dark where you were.

Answer: The Moon shines through reflected light from the Sun and thus it becomes very dark during a lunar eclipse since the Moon lies within Earth's shadow at this time. However, some sunlight still gets through because it is bent similar to the way a lens works by Earth's atmosphere. We see the reflection of this faint light and thus the Moon is not completely invisible. The bending of light is called refraction and the effect is strongest at long wavelengths.

Thus it is most pronounced for red light and the eclipsed Moon appears dark red. Answer: During a solar eclipse, you would see a small circular shadow traveling across a portion of Earth's surface. Could we still have solar eclipses? If so, what type s? Answer: If the Moon were twice its actual distance from us, we would no longer be able to see total solar eclipses because the Moon would not be able to completely cover the surface of the Sun; however, we would still see partial and annular eclipses, although the Moon would not block as much of the Sun during these times.

Answer: This statement does not makes sense because the apparent retrograde motion is noticeable only over many nights, not during a single night. Of course, like all celestial objects, Mars moves from east to west over the course of every night. Answer: full Earth 27 Process of Science: Your friend hypothesizes that the phases of the Moon are produced by Earth's shadow being cast on the Moon's surface. Devise an experiment to prove your friend wrong. Answer: If you observe any time when the Moon and Sun are both in the sky e.

Similarly, an observation of the full Moon shows the opposite: no Earth shadow at all, though the alignment would favor one. Answer: You could fly across the equator to see that there can be winter in one hemisphere at the same time there is summer in the other.

A a few dozen B a couple thousand C several million D a few hundred billion Answer: B 2 What do astronomers mean by a constellation? A A constellation is a region in the sky as seen from Earth. B A constellation is a group of stars related through an ancient story. C A constellation is any random grouping of stars in the sky.

D A constellation is a group of stars that are all located in about the same place in space. Answer: A 3 What is the ecliptic? A the path the Sun appears to trace around the celestial sphere each year B the Sun's daily path from east to west in our sky C the path traced by the Moon's shadow on Earth during a solar eclipse D a half-circle extending from your horizon due north, through your zenith, to your horizon due south Answer: A 4 What is the celestial sphere? A The celestial sphere is a representation of how the entire sky looks as seen from Earth.

B The celestial sphere is a model that shows the true locations in space of the Sun and a few thousand of the nearest stars. C The celestial sphere is a model of how the stars are arranged in the sky relative to our Sun, which is in the middle of the sphere. D It represents a belief in an Earth-centered universe, and hence is no longer considered to have any use.

Answer: A 5 What do we mean when we talk about the Milky Way in our sky?Book details Author: The saros cycle of eclipses defines a month. D it is above the horizon during the daytime. E They did detect it, but they rejected the observations. I'm very glad site is doing this.

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